Wool coating is not a specific fabric, but rather a general term for a whole range of heavy-weight wool fabrics in a variety of weaves. Most are fairly stiff, but some have a softer, more drapey hand. For more information on wool in general, see the entry Glossary: Wool Fiber. “Coating” is a very broad modern term which designates fabrics based on their common intended use for coats and other outerwear. Typically, any fabric designated “coating” will be too thick for any type of fitted, regular garment, as coatings generally fall into the heavy end of the fabric weight range. Some coatings are fulled, such as flannel, to make them denser and warmer; for more information, see the entry on wool flannel and fulled wools.
Definitions of wool related terms and of relevant types of wool fabrics from a variety of print resources, each of which contains further information:
- Bassett, Lynne Zacek. Textiles for Regency Clothing 1800-1850: A Workbook of Swatches and Information. Formerly titled Textiles for Clothing of the Early Republic. Arlington, Virginia: Q Graphics Production Company, Product division of Sally Queen & Associates, 2001.
On page 12, on the subject of fibers, it is stated that “Wool or woolen is a staple fiber, meaning it is of relatively short length. Short staple wool is carded before spinning and creates fluffier yarn and fabric. Longer staple wool is called ‘worsted.’ Worsted fibers are combed to lay them parallel before spinning, creating a smoother yarn and thus a smoother fabric.”
- Butterick Publishing Company, The. Vogue Sewing. Revised edition. New York: The Butterick Publishing Company, 2000.
On page 39, it is stated that “Woolen and worsted yarns are, respectively, the wool counterparts of carded and combed, yarns in other fibers,” after stating that “Carding produces a loose strand of more or less parallel fibers about and inch (25 mm) in diameter. Further combing eliminates shorter fibers and produces a strand of higher quality.”
- Marsh, Heidi, Compiled by. Styles and So Forth of the Era of the Hoop; with Glossary. Greenville, California: Heidi Marsh, 1994.
On page 180, “stuff” is defined as “plain wool fabric.” Also on page 180, “tartan” is defined as “wool fabric crossbarred by narrow bands of different colors.” Also on page 180, “wool” is defined as “fabric made from the fleece of sheep, woven in many different styles, has warmth and elasticity.” Also on page 181, “worsted” is defined as “wool fabric made of well-twisted yarn of long-staple wool, combed to lay the fibers parallel.”
- Montgomery, Florence. Textiles in America 1650-1870: A Dictionary based on original documents, prints and paintings, commercial records, American merchants’ papers, shopkeepers’ advertisements, and pattern books with original swatches of cloth. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2007.
On page 375, “woolen” is defined as “Cloth made of carded short-staple fibers. After weaving, the cloth was fulled for shrunk to make it denser and heavier. Broadcloth was England’s traditional fine woolen manufacture. The soft fluffy fibers of carded wool were also suitable for knitting.” Also on page 375, “worsted” is defined as “Lightweight cloth made of long-staple combed wool yarn. The name was derived from the village of Worstead near Norwich, a center for worsted weaving. The smooth, shiny fibers were suitable for embroidery and indeed were synonymous with the word crewel, or crewel yarn.”
On page 325, “plaid” is defined as “A twill or plain woven cloth with a pattern of intersecting stripes in both the warp and the weft. The patterns may also be printed.” On page 353, “stuff” is defined as “A general term for worsted cloths.” Drawing from an 1833 list, stuff was available twilled or plain, in such varieties as merino, shalloons, lastings, prunella, florentine, tammies, calimancoes, camblets, and plaids.
- “Wool” on Wikipedia (Remember to read critically!)
- “The Prewash” by Sarai at The Coletterie
- “Fabric Series: Wool” by Caitlin at The Coletterie
- “Quick Look: Cashmere” by Rachel at The Coletterie
For more information about an individual fiber, fabric, or other material, select it on the right side menu for “Fibers, Fabrics, and Materials.” This will bring up all entries which have that tag, including (in most cases) a Glossary post like this one, which will offer a definition of that fiber, fabric, or material, and sometimes also offer useful links to outside sources on working with it. For more general information, visit the core entry for the Glossary: Fibers, Fabrics, and Materials. For a directory of all textile glossary posts, go to the Glossary Table of Contents.
Updated January 10, 2012